CHEEC Seed Grants: FY 1989

Modeling dissolve oxygen, nitrate,and pesticide concentrations in the subsurface environment 
JL Schnoor, DR Nair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Iowa

Development of methods for epidemiologic studies of birth defects and environmental exposures in Iowa 
RG Munger, EP Isacson, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health; JW Hanson, Department of Pediatrics; D Schwartz, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa

Identification and toxicity of decomposition products of nitrogenous pesticides following ozonation 
BC Kross, MI Selim, J Hwang, L Odell, Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa

Development of a model rural injury surveillance program 
JA Merchant, KJ Donham, Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa

Feasibility study of DNA flow cytometry in renal cell and colorectal carcinoma among Iowa residents 
CF Lynch, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health; R Robinson, Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa

Collection of historical municipal drinking water data for Iowa municipalities population 750-1,000 
CF Lynch, M Gleaves, M Finn, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa

 


Modeling dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and pesticide concentrations in the subsurface environment 
Investigators: JL Schnoor, DR Nair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Iowa 
The objectives of this study were to develop a one dimensional (vertical), time variable mathematical model for the transport and reactions of pesticides and nitrates though the unsaturated zone to surficial aquifers. Testing and validation of the model with data from laboratory and field studies on alachlor, atrazine, and nitrates was conducted. The model can provide better understanding of processes effecting pesticides and nitrates in the subsurface environment. Additionally, the model can provide predictions of pesticide and nitrate concentrations under varied application rates, soil types, climatic conditions, electron acceptor conditions, etc. Two field sites were utilized-Amana, Iowa, and Tipton, Georgia. The model performed well and enabled investigators to acquire additional funding through the EPA Hazardous Substances Research Center for Region 7 and 8 for further research.

Publication: Nair DR, Burken JG, Licht LA, Schnoor JL; Mineralization and Uptake of Triazine Pesticide in Soil - Plant Systems. Journal of Environ. Engineering. 1993; 119(5):842-854

Development of methods for epidemiologic studies of birth defects and environmental exposures in Iowa 
Investigators: R Munger and P Isacson, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health; J Hanson, Department of Pediatrics; D Schwartz, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa. 
The project developed a survey and questionnaire for use in population surveys to assess environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, and genetic factors that may increase the risk of birth defects. The study also focused on development of methods of subject contact and tracking. Questionnaire response rates of mothers were compared between those whose children had birth defects or no birth defects. Additionally, validity of the questionnaires was tracked from responses and the mother's medical record. The subject contact procedures and tracking methods developed in this CHEEC funded pilot study proved beneficial for use in the Iowa Birth Defects Registry in etiologic studies of birth defects. The questionnaire developed in this study was utilized in a project titled Epidemiologic Characterization of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Human Clefts, funded by the National Institute of Dental Research.

Identification and toxicity of decomposition products of nitrogenous pesticides following ozonation 
Investigators: BC Kross, M Selim, J Hwang, L Odell, Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa 
This project examined the feasibility of point-of-use (POU)/ point-of-entry (POE) ozone treatment systems for in-home use, and their effectiveness at removing the commonly applied pesticides alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, metribuzin, and propachlor. Tests were conducted in open and closed systems, and efforts were made to simulate probable demand on the system for in-home use. The effectiveness of the ozone system demonstrates oxidation of the pesticides is closely related to the compound oxidized, the pesticide concentration, the ozone concentration, and contact times. Ranking these compounds to their susceptibility to ozone oxidation, metribuzin is the most easily oxidized, followed by alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, propachlor, and cyanazine. From the tests performed, given a large enough concentration times time (CT) value, oxidation of the pesticides tested to concentrations below health advisory standards can be achieved through ozone POU/POE systems. A follow up study, titled Destruction of nitrogenous pesticides by combined ozone/H2O2 and enzymatic polymerization process was funded by EPA Hazardous Substance Research Center, Region 7.

Development of a model rural injury surveillance program
Investigators: JA Merchant, K Donham, Institute of Agriculture Medicine and Occupational Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa 
The goals of this project were to review and evaluate available mortality and morbidity data for farm health and safety in order to develop a farm injury surveillance model. A plan was drafted for a population-based surveillance program, data management system, and surveillance network that could be replicated in any agricultural state or region. Results of a pilot study conducted in several rural hospitals were used to develop a proposal to establish an Injury Prevention Research Center at The University of Iowa. This center was established in 1990 through an award from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Feasibility study of DNA flow cytometry in renal cell and colorectal carcinoma among Iowa residents 
Investigators: CF Lynch, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health; R Robinson, Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa 
This study researched the feasibility of performing DNA ploidy analysis on formalin-fixed tissue from patients who participated in a statewide, population-based, case-control study, and who had tumorous tissue removed at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Eligible cancer sites included the kidney, colon, and rectum. A data collection form was developed and ploidy analysis was run. These analysis were correlated with known pathologic predictors of outcome, as well as with known risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. Results showed no strong associations between ploidy status and survival predictors nor with any dietary and other potential risk factors.

Collection of historical municipal drinking water data for Iowa municipalities population 750-1,000 
Investigators: CF Lynch, M Gleaves, M Finn, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa 
This data collection and management project was developed to upgrade existing historical information for municipal water supplies in the state of Iowa with populations 750-1,000. There are 77 such communities. These data included the name of the source, the year the supply began providing water to a community, the year a source stopped providing to a community, treatment type, etc. An initial pilot study contacted ten municipal water treatment plants to test the adequacy of the questionnaire. A telephone interview followed within a week of initial contact. Results from the pilot questionnaire showed the data collection process to be efficient, and the remaining communities were contacted in a similar manner. Data collected was added to the CHEEC database on municipal water supplies. This data is being utilized by CHEEC researchers looking at source of drinking water and health effects. Methods developed in this project were later utilized to collect historical data for Iowa towns population 250-749. Technical Report Available.