CHEEC Seed Grants: FY 2003

Fate and significance of a veterinary antibiotic in the environment: a laboratory study 
J Coats, T Phillips, J Belden, K Henderson Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, T Moorman, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Additive Effects of Environmental Contaminants (Chemical Mixtures) on Selenium-dependent Glutathione Peroxidase 
G Ludewig, L Robertson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa

Disposition and Metabolism of N-Methyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamidoethanol (NMeFOSE) in Rats 
H Lehmler, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, K Hornbuckle, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Iowa

Heartland Environmental Metal Dental Study 
R Field, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, L. Fuortes, Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, B Smith, Department of Biostatistics, L Snetselaar, Department of Epidemiology, The University of Iowa, D Simmons, The University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory

Are Iowa's Meat Processing Workers at Increased Risk of Zoonotic Infections? 
K Myers and G Gray, Department of Epidemiology, The University of Iowa

 


Fate and significance of a veterinary antibiotic in the environment: a laboratory study 
Investigators: J Coats, T Phillips, J Belden, K Henderson Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, T Moorman, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Tylosin is a veterinary antibiotic commonly used in swine production for growth promotion and disease prevention. Swine excrete this drug in urine and feces, and tylosin enters the environment via manure application. This study proposes to investigate the mobility and degradation of tylosin, as well as the survival and movement of microorganisms in the presence of tylosin. Waters leaching from intact soil columns will be examined for tylosin, for total Escherichia coli and for tylosin-resistant E. coli. Following the completion of the study, soil will be evaluated for the mobility of tylosin and presence of metabolites, as well as for survival and movement of microorganisms. The experimental design will allow us to determine if tylosin causes increased levels of tylosin-resistant E. coli in soil or if tylosin increases survival and movement of tylosin-resistant E. coli in manure.

Additive Effects of Environmental Contaminants (Chemical Mixtures) on Selenium-dependent Glutathione Peroxidase
Investigators: G Ludewig, L Robertson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa 
Awareness of environmental contamination and possible health consequences have grown significantly and resulted in increased efforts to monitor and understand the effects of individual compounds. However, this research does not reflect the reality that we are routinely exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants, ranging from metals to industrial compounds. Many environmental chemicals influence the same endpoint, namely the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), although the chemicals have different chemical structures and mechanisms of toxicity. This proposal addresses the issue of chemical mixtures and is supported by recent papers suggesting a connection between selenium and/or Se-GPx and chemical carcinogenesis. This research will investigate the effects of combinations of environmental chemicals on Se-GPx by employing cell culture and in vivo experiments.

Disposition and Metabolism of N-Methyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamidoethanol (NMeFOSE) in Rats 
Investigators: H Lehmler, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, K Hornbuckle, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Iowa 
Perfluorinated surfactants such as N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (NMeFOSE) are produced for a large number of applications such as fire fighting foams and furniture coatings. These chemicals are emerging as an important class of environmentally persistent chemicals. Our knowledge of their metabolism, distribution, disposition and, ultimately, mechanisms of toxicity is very limited. Exposure to these chemicals has been associated with developmental toxicity in several animal models. This research hypothesizes is that after uptake with the diet, NMeFOSE is metabolized in vivo to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. Studies aims are (1) to synthesize putative perfluorooctane sulfonyl metabolites (2) establish analytical assays to measure NMeFOSE and its metabolites in biological samples, (3) study the in vitro metabolism of NMeFOSE with rat liver microsomes, and (4) measure the distribution of NMeFOSE and its metabolites in female rats.

Publication:  Lehmler H, Bummer P; Mixing of perfluorinated carboxylic acids with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Biochimi Biophys Acta. 2004; 1664(2):141-149

Heartland Environmental Metal Dental Study 
Investigators: R Field, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, L. Fuortes, Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, B Smith, Department of Biostatistics, L Snetselaar, Department of Epidemiology, The University of Iowa, D Simmons, The University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory 
Few methods accurately assess past exposures, particularly to a variety of toxicants at the same time. The availability of the inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer has opened the door to such possibilities. However, most human tissues (blood, urine, hair) generally only reflect rather recent exposure. This study proposes to monitor a variety of metals in a tissue (teeth) that can incorporate metals over an extended period of time. Third molars were chosen for this pilot study for several reasons: 1) they are readily available from a cross-section of young adults in Iowa, 2) they have a relatively large mass as compared to other teeth, which provides greater source material for analysis, and 3) they are the last teeth to be formed, thus potentially reflecting the subjects' environmental exposure to a larger degree than teeth that were formed in utero. This biomonitoring project provides a direct connection between potential environmental toxicants and the human receptor.

Are Iowa's Meat Processing Workers at Increased Risk of Zoonotic Infections? 
Investigators: K Myers and G Gray, Department of Epidemiology, The University of Iowa 
Meat processing workers are often exposed to various avian, swine, and bovine tissues. It is hypothesized that due to these exposures meat processing workers may have elevated risks for acquiring a number of zoonotic infections. This pilot investigation will focus upon three organisms: West Nile virus, influenza A virus, and avian pneumovirus. The study design involves the collaboration of two meat (pork, turkey, chicken, and beef) processing plants in Iowa. One hundred meat processing employees from each site along with their spouses (n~400 subjects) will be enrolled. Serum would be studied for evidence of infection with the three viral agents of interest. Seroprevalence data from the workers at the two plants will be compared with their spouses to discern evidence of occupational risk. This pilot study may shed significant light upon previously unexamined environmental health risks for meat processing workers in Iowa and throughout the United States.

Publication:  Meyers K, Olsen C, Setterquist S, Capuano A, Donham K, Thacker E, Merchant J, Gray G; Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus? ; Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 42(1):14-20