Dissolution of 226 Radium from pipe-scale deposits in a public water supply
This study was undertaken to determine if dissolution of 226Radium from pipe-scale deposits contributes to enhanced waterborne 226Radium concentrations at the point of use. Water samples were collected from residential water customers of a small rural Iowa town. Sites were evenly divided between new and old water main connections. Daily samples were collected from the point-of-entry water. Point-of-use 226Radium concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 12.9 pCi L−1 (0.01 to 0.5 Bq L−1). The mean 226Radium concentration for homes connected to old water mains was significantly higher than the mean 226Radium concentration of homes connected to new water mains, mean(standard deviation) equal 8.3(1.1) and 5.3(0.8) pCi L−1 [0.3(1.1) and 0.2(0.8) Bq L−1], respectively. 226Radium concentrations of the point-of-entry water ranged from 5.0 pCi L−1 to 10.3 pCi L−1 (0.2 Bq L−1 to 0.4 Bq L−1). This study indicates considerable variability of 226Radium exposure from drinking water among residents of the same water supply and has implications for regulatory compliance and exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies
Fisher, Eileen L., Laurence J. Fuortes, Richard L. Valentine, Marinea Mehrhoff, and R. William Field. "Dissolution of 226Radium from pipe-scale deposits in a public water supply." Environment international 26, no. 1-2 (2000): 69-73.